Pharmacokinetics of fentanyl following intravenous
and transdermal administration in horses

Maxwell LK, Thomasy SM, Slovis N, Kollias-Baker C.
K. L. Maddy Equine Analytical Chemistry Laboratory,
School of Veterinary Medicine,
University of California,
Davis, California 95616, USA.
Equine Vet J. 2003 Jul;35(5):484-90


REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Although fentanyl has been reported to cause CNS excitation in horses, a transdermal therapeutic system (TTS) containing this mu agonist has recently been used empirically in equine medicine to treat moderate to severe pain. A better understanding of the disposition of fentanyl following transdermal administration would facilitate the clinical use of TTS fentanyl to obtain analgesia in horses. OBJECTIVES: To determine the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl following i.v. and TTS patch administration in healthy, mature horses and to evaluate the tolerance of horses to TTS fentanyl administration. METHODS: The pharmacokinetics of fentanyl in serum were assessed following a single i.v. dose, a single TTS dose, and multiple TTS doses in 6 healthy horses. Physical examinations, haematology and serum biochemistry analyses during transdermal fentanyl application were then performed to determine tolerance of continuous fentanyl administration. RESULTS: Fentanyl was very rapidly and completely absorbed following a single TTS dose. Mean serum fentanyl concentrations consistent with analgesia in other species were reached by 1 h and maintained until 32 h after patch application. Similar steady state serum concentrations were obtained when multiple doses of TTS fentanyl were administered every 48 or 72 h over 8 or 9 days, with less fluctuation in serum concentrations during the 48 h dosing interval. Three horses exhibited brief (< 12 h) episodes of increased body temperature; however, transdermal fentanyl administrations were not associated with other significant changes in haematology and biochemistry panels or physical examination findings. CONCLUSIONS AND POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: Although the pharmacodynamics of fentanyl have not been investigated fully in horses, transdermally-administered fentanyl exhibited a favourable pharmacokinetic profile without clinically relevant side effects and may be a useful analgesic in equine patients.
Fentanyl analogs
4-methyl fentanyl
Driving on fentanyl
Fentanyl: synthesis
Intravenous fentanyl
Fentanyl and serotonin
Fentanyl and ketamine
Opioids and anaesthesia
Remifentanil and alfentanil
Fentanyl: subjective effects
Fentanyl versus remifentanil
Fentanyl and the immune system
From codeine to transdermal fentanyl
Fentanyl (Sublimaze, Duragesic) : structure

fentanyl synthesis